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Clutches (90)

A clutch is a mechanical device that provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member) when engaged, but can be disengaged.
The clutch is located between the engine and the gearbox, as disengaging it is required to change gear. Although the gearbox does not stop rotating during a gear change, there is no torque transmitted through it, thus less friction between gears and their engagement dogs. The output shaft of the gearbox is permanently connected to the final drive, then the wheels, and so both always rotate together, at a fixed speed ratio. With the clutch disengaged, the gearbox input shaft is free to change its speed as the internal ratio is changed. Any resulting difference in speed between the engine and gearbox is evened out as the clutch slips slightly during re-engagement.

Friction clutches are by far the most well-known type of clutches.
Various materials have been used for the disc friction facings, including asbestos in the past. Modern clutches typically use a compound organic resin with copper wire facing or a ceramic material. A typical coefficient of friction used on a friction disc surface is 0.35 for organic and 0.25 for ceramic. Ceramic materials are typically used in heavy applications such as trucks carrying large loads or racing, though the harder ceramic materials increase flywheel and pressure plate wear.
Friction disk clutches generally are classified as push type or pull type depending on the location of the pressure plate fulcrum points. In a pull type clutch, the action of pressing the pedal pulls the release bearing, pulling on the diaphragm spring and disengaging the vehicle drive. The opposite is true with a push type, the release bearing is pushed into the clutch disengaging the vehicle drive. In this instance, the release bearing can be known as a thrust bearing (as per the image above).
Clutch pads are attached to the frictional pads, part of the clutch. They are most commonly made of rubber but have been known to be made of asbestos. Clutch pads usually last about 100,000 miles (160,000 km) depending on how vigorously the car is driven.
In addition to the damped disc centres which reduce driveline vibration, pre-dampers may be used to reduce gear rattle at idle by changing the natural frequency of the disc. These weaker springs are compressed solely by the radial vibrations from an idling engine. They are fully compressed and no longer in use once drive is taken up by the main damper springs.

Other clutches and applications
Hydraulic clutch: The driving and driven members are not in physical contact; coupling is hydrodynamic.
Electromagnetic clutch: Typically a clutch that is engaged by an electromagnet that is an integral part of the clutch assembly. However, magnetic particle clutches have magnetically influenced particles contained in a chamber between driving and driven members which upon application of direct current causes the particles to clump together and adhere to the operating surfaces. Engagement and slippage are notably smooth.

World famous brands:DAIKIN®, LUK®, SACHS®